The remains of Titanic lie two miles deep at the bottom of the sea, entombed by the frigid waters of the north Atlantic, 380 miles southeast of Newfoundland. Until her April 14, 1912 sinking following a collision with an iceberg, Titanic was the biggest and most luxurious of the Olympic-class ocean liners built during the prosperous Edwardian era around the turn of the 20th century. She measured 882 feet and 9 inches in length, 92 feet and 6 inches in width, and had a height from water line to Boat Deck of 60 feet. At 46,328 gross tons, Titanic was slightly larger than her older sister ship Olympic (largely due to Titanic's added B Deck staterooms) and slightly smaller than her younger sister ship Britannic. Britannic was the last of the three ships of the class and tragically sank in 1916 during World War I following an impact with a mine. (Lynch/Marschall, Beveridge Vol. I).
Construction of the RMS Titanic began on March 31, 1909 at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Northern Ireland. She was one of three large transatlantic liners commissioned at the time by the White Star Line, that were intended to be the biggest and most luxurious ships ever built. On May 31, 1911, her hull was launched, and the outfitting completed on March 31, 1912. Carrying the RMS (Royal Mail Ship) title, the ship began its maiden voyage on April 10, 1912 at Southampton, England, bound for New York under the command of Captain Edward J. Smith.
Filmmaker James Cameron, director of the two highest-grossing movies of all time (1997's Titanic and 2010'sAvatar), has had a love of the RMS Titanic and its tragic story since childhood. In August 1995, Cameron gathered a crew of experts to journey to the North Atlantic and document the wreckage of the RMS Titanic in preparation for his soon-to-be made epic blockbuster Titanic. This task was facilitated by the use of the manned submersibles Mir 1 and Mir 2, launched from the Russian ship Akademik Mstislav Keldysh, the largest research vessel in the world. This underwater footage was used to haunting effect in the feature film, but more importantly, it served to stoke Cameron's interest in the ship's wreckage, its deteriorating condition, and the mysteries it still held. The feature film Titanic, released in late 1997, was both a critical and commercial success, and soon became the highest grossing film of all time. Meanwhile, various salvage operations were rapidly picking the real-life ship clean of many of its features and inflicting damage to its remaining intact structures. A concerned Cameron decided to conduct several more research trips to the ocean floor. Cameron wanted to more thoroughly document the remains of the Titanic before its inevitable collapse into a heap of scrap metal (Discovery Channel).
The wreckage of the RMS Titanic split during the sinking into its bow and stern portions, which today lie over 1900 feet (600 meters) from each other, and 12,467 feet (3800 meters) from the surface. Although the wreck of the Titanic, particularly the bow section, was in fairly pristine condition upon its discovery in 1985, scientists (including Robert Ballard, discoverer of the wreck) believe that increasing tourism and salvage operations have resulted in an advanced rate of decay. In the last 25 years of salvage operations and visits, the ship has experienced the total collapse of its Crow's Nest, Captain's Cabin, Forward Mast, and Poop Deck. Rusticles, visually similar to icicles except made of five types of rust microbes, have multiplied rapidly over the past decade. This process has been accelerated by the consistent disturbance of bottom sediment from tourists and salvage operations. Ecological changes in the biology of sea life around the now-over fished Grand Banks area where the wreck is located have likely contributed to the recent explosion of rusticles. The decline in larger predatory species targeted by commercial fisheries is linked to the increase of small marine life (plankton) in the waters above, which in turn effects the microbial growth below (Discovery Channel) .
Deck A Aft
Deck A Forward
Room A 07
Room A 11
Room A 16 & 20
Room A 21
Room A 31
The Grand Staircase
Deck B Forward
Rooms B 52, 54 & 56
Deck B Stern
Boat Deck Aft
Boat Deck Forward
Deck C Bow
Cabins C 55 & 57
Rooms C 62 & 64
Deck C Stern
Deck D Aft
Deck D Forward
Room D 40
Deck E Bow
Room E 03
Room E 38
|Room E 50|
Deck E Stern
Deck F Bow
Deck F Stern
Room F 02
Deck G Bow
Deck G Stern
Orlop Deck Bow
Orlop Deck Stern
Tank Deck Bow
Tank Deck Stern
The Promenade, or A-Deck, was located directly below the Boat Deck and was home to many of the ship's most extravagant features. The Veranda and Palm Court were here, along with both First-Class Staircase Entrances, Smoking Room, (women's) Reading and Writing Room, and Lounge. All of the cabins on the A-Deck were First-Class and located within the forward Bow section. A Deck contained 34 staterooms: with odd-numbered rooms (A1-A35) on the starboard side of the vessel, and even-numbered rooms (A2-A34) on the port side of the vessel.
The stern area of the A Deck was full of First-Class amenities, including the (men's) Smoking Room, the Lounge, the Veranda and Palm Court, and the smaller of the two First-Class entrance stairways. There were no cabins in the A-Deck's Stern area.
Towards the exclusive environs located on the Bow of the A-Deck was the First-Class Reading and Writing Room, three Elevators, the First-Class cabins and restrooms, and the Grand Staircase. All of the First-Class cabins were large staterooms; the maritime equivalent to penthouse suites in a luxury hotel. Most First-Class staterooms on the Titanic were in a variety of Neo-Classical styles, outfitted with a lavatory sink, dutch doors that connected to neighboring rooms, a dressing table, a heater, a wardrobe, a finely upholstered brass bed, and a sofa berth for an extra passenger, surrounded by hardwood fixtures and trim all around. These were occupied by some of the richest people in the world at the time of the disaster.
Room A 07 was located to starboard, next to a staircase going between decks. It was occupied by Mr. James Clinch Smith, a 56 year-old Long Island resident who boarded the Titanic at Cherbourg. The final moments of J. Clinch Smith's life aboard Titanic are immortalized in his friend Archibald Gracie's popular book Titanic: A Survivor's Story.
Room A 11 was occupied by Miss Edith Louise Rosenbaum (AKA Edith Russell), of Cincinatti, Ohio, a 33 year old socialite who had been in Paris to report on spring fashions. From a letter posted in Queenstown, Edith wrote to her secretary in Paris that she had a premonition of trouble in her opulent surroundings, which she described as impressive but 'monstrous' in their excessiveness. As Room A 11 was to starboard, Miss Rosenbaum saw the iceberg glide by her window, and strongly felt both impacts from it. She escaped the Titanic on lifeboat 11, having lost all of her valuable possessions onboard save for her lucky ceramic pig; she had attempted to secure insurance before the journey and was refused on the grounds that the ship was purportedly 'unsinkable'. Edith Rosenbaum died in 1975 in London at the age of 98 after an illustrious life, which included a stint as the world's first female war correspondent during WWI.
Fashion designer Lady Duff Gordon (age 45) and her husband, aristocrat Sir Cosmo Duff Gordon (age 49), occupied rooms A-16 and A-20. They both escaped aboard Lifeboat 1, and were the only passengers called to testify in British hearings on the disaster.
Room A 21 was occupied by John Bertram Brady. Mr. Brady lived in Washington State. He was returning from a vacation in Europe and booked passage on Titanic. He did not survive the sinking.
Mr. Henry Blank occupied stateroom A 31, located in from starboard towards the middle of the ship, near the women's lavatories and the elevators. This room was lighted and ventilated from the Boat Deck above as well as having all the other amenities of Titanic's First-Class cabins. Mr. Henry Blank was a 39 year old jeweler from New Jersey. Soon after he and his two card-playing companions felt the shuddering impacts and discovered they were from an iceberg, they went to investigate on the lower decks; seawater flooding the squash courts on Deck F left no doubt in their minds that the ship would sink. As a result, Henry Blank was one of the first people into the first lifeboat, number 7, which left the ship around an hour after the iceberg struck. As few people were on deck to evacuate at this point, Lifeboat number 7 was not filled to capacity and had more men on it (15 out of 26) than later boats, which adhered more strictly to the 'women and children first' policy. Henry Blank's wife never let him travel without her on an intercontinental journey again.
This is the forward first class, or Grand Staircase, as viewed from A Deck. Designed by Aldam Heaton and Co. Harland and Wolff's interior design firm; the staircase was carved of oak, with balustrades of wrought iron and gilt bronze, topped by a wrought iron and glass dome. In this image, you can see a carved oak clock at the head of the stairs. A rendition of Honor and Glory Crowning Time is carved around the clock face. At the base of the stairs stands a statue of a bronze cherub holding a lamp.
The Grand Staircase extended from the Boat Deck down to E Deck, and the Turkish Baths, creating a path for first class passengers to traverse the ship without interaction with second or third class passengers. Today, the Grand Staircase is devoid of dome, stairs or balustrades. An open shaft, it is now one of the only points of entry into Titanic.
The Bridge, or B Deck, was as opulent as the A Deck. It was home to the highest concentration of First-Class cabins and suites aboard the ship. Also located on the B Deck were the exclusive A La Carte Restaurant and Cafe Parisien, the Second-Class Smoking area, and extensive First- and Second-Class Promenades. Far aft on the stern end of the ship was the Third-Class Poop Deck, affording these passengers some outside deck space.
The forward area of B Deck was dominated by First-Class Staterooms and Suites. All of these were outfitted in the tasteful elegance of Neo-Classic styles and included modern amenities such as electric Gimbal lamps, table fans, and electric fan ventilation to bring in air from outside; the most exclusive suites had their own private promenades. The individual cabins of suites were connected by Dutch doors that provided wealthy families easy access to the quarters of their children and servants; with the private promenades and room service provided upon request, these families could theoretically spend the entire journey secluded in the privacy of their exclusive suites.
Joseph Bruce Ismay was the managing Director of the White Star Line and President of the International Mercantile Marine Company, the owners of Titanic. In his position as an executive of these companies, Joesph Ismay was a strong advocate for expanded size and luxury aboard modern ocean liners such as the Titanic and Olympic, a design choice that often came at the expense of speed and maneuverability - factors that may have played a role in the Titanic's sinking. Mr. Ismay was 50 years old when he boarded the Titanic for her maiden Transatlantic voyage. He was rescued aboard Collapsible C.
The stern area of the B Deck had First-Class Suites amidships around the staircase, bordering First-Class sitting rooms and the reception area for two exclusive restaurants named A La Carte (located to Port) and Cafe Parisien (located to Starboard with expansive windows looking out over the sea). Bordering these restaurants were the Second-Class Smoking Room and Promenades. Additionally, far aft on the Stern end of the ship was the Third-Class Poop Deck. This area afforded these passengers some outside deck space including benches and room for games, though they had to share the deck with cargo and mooring machinery. The B Deck's far aft stern area was also the location for the aft docking bridge, an elevated platform that functioned like a miniature Wheelhouse/Bridge that included a telephone, telegraphs, a wheel, and other technologies used to assist in docking the Titanic.
The RMS Titanic's Boat Deck was the uppermost deck of the ship. Much of it was open to passengers for promenading and leisure. Dividing the deck along much of its length were deckhouses constructed around the boiler and machinery casings, as well as raised roofs over the several First Class public rooms located on the deck below. The majority of the ship’s ventilators were located here as well, but owing to the use of Sirocco fans to assist with moving air, Titanic’s Boat Deck was not obstructed with the typical unsightly forest of ventilation heads prominent on so many other ships of the period. Also conspicuous by their absence were the huge cowls which delivered air to the forced-draft systems in the boiler spaces of ships like Cunard’s Mauretania. A large continuous deck area, sheathed in yellow pine, extended along both sides of the ship and around the after end of this deck. The raised roofs of the First Class Reading and Writing Room and the First Class Lounge, which extended upward through the Boat Deck by several feet, were also sheathed over in yellow pine, and provided space for deck games. The majority of the Boat Deck space was reserved for First Class passengers, while a smaller area aft was reserved exclusively for Second Class passengers. In addition, the engineers and officers each had their own areas reserved exclusively for them; the latter space also served as a natural barrier which prevented uninvited ‘visitors’ from wandering forward onto the Bridge. As the height of the Boat Deck above the water afforded commanding views in all directions, it was the natural location for the Navigating Bridge and Wheelhouse. These were located at the very forward end of the deck, adjoining the forward end of the deckhouse that also housed the Chart Room and other related spaces, the Officers’ Quarters, the Marconi rooms, six First Class staterooms, the First Class Gymnasium and the forward First Class Entrance. Other deckhouses, some of which surrounded the bases of the funnels themselves, held the Officers’ Mess, Tank Rooms, Engineers’ Smoke Room, and forward Second Class Entrance. The skylights enclosing the domes above both First Class staircases were also situated here – the after one at deck level, and the forward one located on top of the deckhouse roof over the First Class Entrance hall. The light and air shafts above the Reciprocating and Turbine Engine Rooms terminated here as well at the roof level of the deckhouses surrounding them; the former was capped by a skylight while the latter opened into the base of the No.4 Funnel. Flanking both sides of the Boat Deck were the ship’s 30ft main lifeboats and 25ft emergency cutters.
The Boat Deck further towards the stern contained the Second-Class Entrance, an elevator, engine casings and the tank rooms, the First-Class Smoking Area's raised roof, and eight lifeboats, as well as the Second-Class and Engineers' Promenades with areas for deck games.
The Boat Deck was centered around the Wheelhouse/Bridge on the bow, which included the officers' quarters, Marconi Radio room, and telephone station connecting different parts of the ship. Surrounding these structures were the First-Class Entrance Grand Staircase, the Gymnasium, the Officers' Mess Hall, the First-Class Lounge's raised roof platform with Compass Platform, and twelve lifeboats, as well as the First-Class and Officers' Promenades.
Edward John Smith, captain of the RMS Titanic at the time of its sinking, is a much-debated figure in scholarship and folklore about the sinking. He was 62 years of age and born in Stoke-On-Trent, England; his first ship's command was for White Star Lines (Titanic's parent company) in 1887 and he was considered to be the most popular amongst the White Star captains. On April 14, the night of the ship's sinking, Captain Smith was the guest of honor at a dinner party held by George Widener for the cream of society represented in the ship's manifest; prior iceberg warnings gave the Captain cause to excuse himself early and head to the bridge. Arriving there at 8:55pm, he found only one message pertaining to iceberg dangers in their lane, though a number had been transmitted to the ship and not communicated to the bridge. Captain Smith met with Second Officer Herbert Lightoller and briefly discussed the situation, then excused himself to go to bed at 9:20pm. He was alerted by the ship's collision with the iceberg at 11:40pm and went to the bridge, where he was briefed on the situation by First Officer Murdoch and set off on an inspection. This inspection gave the Captain cause to immediately prepare the lifeboats. He did not, however, give the order for them to be loaded and lowered; for this the Captain was surprisingly indecisive and had to be prodded by Lightoller. He went down with the ship, and was last seen in the bridge area. His body was never recovered. Much debate has centered on to what degree Captain Smith's decisions played a role in the sinking.
The Marconi room was the operating room of Titanic's Marconi Wireless System, likely manned by ship's radio operator Jack Phillips. The Marconi Wireless was a radiotelegraph system that was growing into wider use on transatlantic ship voyages; it enabled ships, trains, and other mobile craft to communicate while in motion and sans the network of cables and poles required for telegraph or telephone service. Though Guglielmo Marconi, inventor of the Marconi Wireless and co-recipient of the 1909 Nobel Prize in physics, was not the first to transmit wireless radio signals in this manner, he was the most commercially-successful, and was responsible the wider dissemination of wireless systems into the mainstream. Marconi was hailed as a hero for his device's role in alerting nearby ships to the disaster on the Titanic, but the system's commercial nature may have also played a role in a series of poor decisions that led to the tragedy. On the night of Titanic's sinking, incoming messages from another ship warning of icebergs in the ship's path were brushed aside by the operators, as their primary duty was to relay paid messages from and to passengers on the ship. After the iceberg was hit, the two Marconi operators changed their perceptions on this duty, and began to relay distress calls to other ships in the vicinity. Senior operator Phillips ran the radio while Junior operator Harold Bride ran messages back and forth to Captain Edward Smith; they remained at the wireless until the power went out.
Located at the very forward end of the deck with the Navigating Bridge, the Wheel House was regarded as the main control center for the ship.
The exposed Wheel House could have been closed off from inclement weather by use of special boards that attached vie slip bolts to the head beam.
As with the decks above it, the Shelter, or C Deck, was dominated by First-Class Suites amidships going towards the bow. At the far end of the bow was located the Crew's Galley, the Seamen's Mess, and the Firemen's Mess, all fully separated from the First-Class Suites. Back towards the stern, amidships also held the First-Class Barbershop and the Maid's/Valet's Saloon, surrounded by First-Class accommodations. Second- and Third-Class recreation areas were located aft towards the stern, separated fully from the First-Class areas. The Second-Class covered promenades and Library were here, while further astern were the Third-Class Smoking and General Rooms (lounge).
First-Class Suites and Staterooms dominated the bow section of the Shelter (C Deck). Located slightly to starboard near the Grand Staircase was the Purser's Office, a suite of offices dedicated to the ship's business affairs including telegraph services, tickets for onboard amenities such as the Turkish Baths, and stewardship of checked baggage. All the way fore on the Shelter's bow was located the Crew's Galley, the Seamen's Mess, and the Firemen's Mess, all fully separated from neighboring First-Class suites.
On the Titanic, 67-year-old Isidor Straus and his wife Ida occupied Cabins C 55-57 along with their manservant John Farthing and Ida's newly employed maid Ellen Bird. Isidor and Ida both died in the sinking of the Titanic. As a merchant, Straus worked his way up from relative poverty as an emigrant to the United States from Bavaria, and eventually became owner of Macy and Co. in 1896. He was also a congressman from New York from 1895-1897.
Colonel JJ Astor (age 48 at the time of the sinking) was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Spanish American War. He came from a high profile family, was an author, inventor, entrepreneur and one of the richest men on the ship. He occupied cabins C-62, C-63, and C-64 with his young, newlywed wife Madeline Force and several domestic servants. As the ship sank, Astor ridiculed the passengers boarding the lifeboats, insisting that the Titanic was safer. Eventually he realized that the ship was sinking and helped his wife to board a lifeboat, which he then requested to board himself but was told that women and children were being evacuated first. Astor died in the sinking.
The center of the ship was dominated on the Shelter (C Deck) by First-Class Suites, and was also home to the First-Class Barbershop (to port) and the Maid's/Valet's Saloon (to starboard). Second- and Third-Class recreation areas were located towards the stern, past amidships' First-Class Suites and fully separated from them. The Second-Class Library, surrounded by promenades, was distinct onboard in that it was decorated in the American Colonial Adams style rather than one of the European Neo-Classical styles the rest of the ship was decorated in; a great many of the postcards that were postmarked from Titanic were written in this room. Far astern, past the Third-Class Promenade, were the Third-Class Smoking and General Rooms (the lounge). These rooms were paneled and framed in oak and pine, with slatted teak benches and chairs. Most of the Third-Class passengers were a diverse group of European immigrants heading towards a new life in America, and the White Star Line made a decision to not upholster these rooms in soft fabrics as it was feared that lice would proliferate amongst the poverty-stricken multitude.
The D Deck, or Saloon, was where First-Class passengers initially entered the ship upon ascending its gangplank. This deck showed a greater diversity of class-organized cabin assignments than the upper decks, though the Second- and Third-Class areas continued to be fully separated from First-Class areas. Amidships in the D Deck, literally at the center of the boat, was dominated by the expansive First-Class Dining Saloon and Reception Area. Adjoining this to aft were the First- and Second-Class pantries and galleys, with the Second-Class dining saloon directly aft from these, followed by Second-Class Cabins and then Third-Class areas at the far astern end of the ship. Over fore to the bow side were some large First-Class Staterooms, followed by open space areas for Third-Class passengers, then the Firemen's Quarters at the far Bow terminus.
The enormous and opulent First-Class Dining Saloon was directly in the center of the ship, between the second and third funnel casings, and was modeled in the Jacobean style. It featured elegant decor and the use of modest-sized tables with armchairs, a clear break with past maritime dining saloons that used long, bench-like tables with swiveling chairs bolted to the deck. Further aft were the First- and Second-Class Galleys, covering acres of deck space with 19 ovens and numerous specialized pantries; these Galleys were set up to prepare at least 62,000 meals during the Titanic's maiden voyage. The Hospital area was also located to port from the Galleys. Following this area astern was the Second-Class Dining Saloon, designed to hold 394 passengers in a more traditional swivel-chair/long-table arrangement, albeit with very attractive oak paneling and good-quality tableware. Further aft past this area were the first Second-Class Cabins on the ship, which had single-tiered beds, and at the terminus of the stern were a few Third-Class Cabins with double-tiered bunk beds.
The horseshoe-shaped Reception Room was the room First-Class passengers initially found themselves in upon climbing the gangplank and entering the ship. It was, along with the neighboring First-Class Dining Saloon, the literal center of the Titanic both socially and structurally, and provided the smoothest ride on the entire ship. A double row of portholes, filtered through a series of prisms, helped disperse sunlight throughout the Reception Room. Further to the fore were some of the most opulent First-Class Staterooms aboard the ship, followed by (and fully-separated from) a Third-Class open space area and bar, finally terminating in the Firemen's Quarters at the bow end.
Dr. Henry William Frauenthal, an orthopedic surgeon and expert in chronic joint diseases, occupied cabin D-40 in First Class with his newlywed wife Clara; his brother was also aboard. Frauenthal was 51 years old at the time of the sinking, and he, his wife, and brother all escaped aboard Lifeboat 5. During the escape, a large man leaped aboard and landed upon Clara, breaking several of her ribs.
The Upper (E) Deck was filled mainly with passenger cabins and crew's quarters, as well as the Second-Class Barbershop and the Engineers' Mess. First-, Second-, and Third-Class all had areas on the Upper Deck, with some mixing between the First- and Second-Class areas and the Second- and Third-Class areas though none between First- and Third-Class; doors found in the walls separating the First- and Third-Class areas did provide access from First-Class into Third-Class areas, but did not open from the Third-Class side.
The bow side of the Upper (E) Deck was mainly composed of First Class Suites to port, Third-Class Cabins and service crew quarters to starboard, and seamen's and trimmers' quarters at the fore. Most of the service quarters were standard maritime-style arrays of tiered bunks in large open berths with a minimum of privacy; the managing heads of services generally had private quarters adjoining their employees' open berths.
Frederick Dent Ray was 32 years old at the time of Titanic's maiden voyage, he lived in Reading, England. As a saloon steward, Mr. Ray waited tables and generally saw to the saloon; he slept in Room 3 on E-Deck with 27 others. On the night of the sinking, his shift ended at 9pm and he went to his bunk. He was awakened by the Titanic's collision with an iceberg, but believed it was something wrong with the engine room and began to drift back to sleep; two stewards soon came in and told everyone to get to lifeboats. At this point, many of the passengers were still showing resistance to boarding the lifeboats. After assisting recalcitrant passengers into Lifeboats 9 and 11, Mr. Ray boarded the half-full Lifeboat 13. As the boat was lowered into the water, a wrapped infant was tossed down to Ray, who caught the child and brought it to safety.
Major Archibald Willingham Butt (age 45) was an influential military aide to Presidents Taft and Theodore Roosevelt. He began his career as a journalist and ended up serving as a lieutenant during the Spanish-American war in the Philippines and Cuba. His later career as a military adviser and aide to two quarreling presidents (Roosevelt and Taft) caused him great mental stress, and he boarded the Titanic for a six-week sojurn to Europe with diplomat Francis Millit. Butt stayed in cabin E 38, and died in the sinking.
Mr. George Achilles (age 25) and Mrs. Dorothy (age 21) Harder were first-class passengers aboard the Titanic, residing in Cabin E 50 and paying 55 English Pounds each for their tickets; they were rescued in Lifeboat 5. George testified in the Senate committee inquiry into the sinking, but was mostly silent on the disaster for the rest of his life; adult men who survived the Titanic bore a stigma for surviving when so many women and children did not. Sallie Beckwith (age 46) was also a first-class passenger (Cabin D-35) who was rescued in Lifeboat 5 along with her husband Richard and daughter Sallie.
The stern side of the Upper (E) Deck was composed mainly of Second-Class Cabins, some Third-Class Cabins, musicians' quarters, cooks' and waiters' quarters, and a few services including the Second-Class Barbershop. Second-Class cabins on the Titanic were roughly equal to First-Class accommodations on slightly older ships, with two or four berths built into the walls and separated by curtains, with fabric patterns of dated types from the turn of the century, but still elegant in style. All Second-Class Cabins had a washbasin affixed to a mahogany cabinet and shared bathrooms in close proximity.
The Middle (F) Deck was home to the First-Class Turkish and Swimming Baths, a large complex on the bow side amidships to port. The Observation Deck for the First-Class Squash Court was also located on the Middle Deck afore towards the bow. Directly amidships was the Third-Class Dining Saloon, divided into fore and aft sections, while further aft was the dog kennels, the engineers' quarters, then more Second- and Third-Class Cabins.
Going before beyond the Third-Class Dining Saloon, to port, were the First-Class Turkish and Swimming Baths, a large complex that included a saltwater swimming pool, steam rooms, dressing booths, showers, a cooling room, and a massage room, all accessible for the price of one dollar, if you were a First-Class passenger. The Observation Deck for the First-Class Squash Court was also located further before towards the bow. Third-Class accommodations surrounded these First-Class recreation facilities, all securely separated from each other.
The First-Class Turkish and Swimming Baths were a large complex that included a saltwater swimming pool, steam rooms, dressing booths, showers, a cooling room, and a massage room '€“ all accessible for the price of one dollar, if you were a First-Class passenger.
Amidships, divided fore and aft by a watertight bulkhead, was the Third-Class Dining Saloon. It was designed in traditional style with a swivel-chair/long-table arrangement and a capacity of 473, sparsely decorated and enameled white. The food, however, was hearty and plentiful, and was probably some of the best food many emigrant passengers had ever eaten. Further astern were Second- and Third-Class cabins, none with portholes on the Middle Deck as it was beneath the water line.
Room F 02 contained the famous 'orphans of the titanic'. The boys were French brothers Michel (age 4) and Edmond Navratil (age 2). To board the ship, their father (who had kidnapped the boys from his estranged wife) assumed the name Louis Hoffman and used their nicknames, Lolo and Mamon. They stayed in room F 02 under their father's alias. The children were rescued aboard Collapsible D while their father perished in the sinking. As neither child could speak English, they were dubbed the 'orphans of the titanic' and temporarily housed by fellow survivor Miss Margaret Hayes until they could be identified. Mme Navratil saw their pictures in the paper and was brought to New York by White Star Line, where she was reunited with her sons on May 16.
The Lower (G) Deck was primarily a mechanical deck, with amidships dominated by boiler room casings and coal bunkers, as well as the engine room casings. At both the stern and bow it served as a cargo deck, including refrigerated food storage and First-Class Baggage, and also held some Third-Class Cabins far astern. On the bow end were Third-Class Open Berths, the Post Office, and the First-Class Squash Court.
Going fore past the boilers would bring one to the Squash Court and Post Office, followed by the First-Class Baggage area and Third-Class Open Berths, where single men traveling in Third-Class were sequestered far from the females and children located aft in the stern. The Squash Court, which included an Observation Deck on the Middle (F) Deck above, was one of the first passenger areas on the Titanic that began to take on water after the iceberg fatally damaged the ship. The Post Office was soon flooded as well; as the ship was sinking, the five postal workers onboard personally dragged 200 bags of registered mail to the upper decks in an effort to save them. All five of these postal workers lost their lives in the ship's sinking.
Going aft past the engine room casings, the stern of the Lower (G) Deck on Titanic was taken up by cold storage for food items and a section of Third-Class Cabins. In general, Titanic's Third-Class Cabins were significantly nicer than those found on most other ships. They included heat and electric lighting, unusual luxuries to many of the emigrants using these quarters in 1912. Proper beds and mattresses were provided, with blankets and pillows (no linens), as well as washbasins. All were outfitted with double berth bunks holding up to six passengers, with single women and families occupying cabins in aft while single men were located to fore in the bow. All offered access to centrally-located water closets, though for bathing there was only one bathtub each for the men and the women. Many poor European citizens of this period unfortunately believed that bathing would make one more vulnerable to consumption (Tuberculosis), and so did not bathe regularly.
The Orlop Deck, located below the G Deck, was home to the Titanic's Boiler Rooms, as well as the Turbine Engine Casing and Reciprocating Engine Casing. Towards the stern it also held the majority of the ship's cold storage and the wine/spirits room, while towards the bow it held First- and Second-Class Baggage, the mail room, and other cargo.
The Bow of the Orlop Deck was given over to cargo and baggage of many types, from parcels and mail (the RMS designation stands for Royal Mail Service) to baggage to motor cars.
The refrigerated rooms located to aft on the Orlop Deck were attenuated to different temperatures for different types of foodstuffs, from beef to fruit to tobacco to champagne. This refrigeration was drawn from copper pipes that would circulate chilled brine from the engine room in greater or lesser quantities depending on the temperature needed. The switchboard platform, which controlled electrical circuits for the ship's dynamos, was also located astern on this deck.
In the bowels of the Titanic lay the Tank Deck. The ship's Boiler Rooms were located here amidships going both fore and aft, mainly towards the bow. Further to aft were the Engine Rooms with their engineers' workshops, and all the way towards the stern were the fresh water tanks used to produce the steam that drove the propellers of the ship.
159 coal-burning furnaces and 29 boilers were divided into the six Boiler Rooms amidships here, fueled by 6000 tons of coal hand-shoveled by the 'black gang' of firemen. Massive, watertight steel doors sealed the compartments from each other. Stoking indicators, timed by an electro-mechanical device, would sound an alarm every seven minutes to indicate which furnace was in need of fresh coal. All the way fore in the Bow were the firemen's passages and hatches, leading above decks to their quarters and coal reserves.
Titanic had three huge steam engines, one Turbine Engine for the massive central propeller and two Reciprocating Engines for the wing propellers. All three of the engine rooms were located to aft on the Tank Deck. The Turbine Engine Room was replete with engineers' workshops and the central power station for the entire ship. Fresh water tanks located further astern would be heated to provide steam for the propellers. Both of the steam engines were reversible, while the Turbine Engine was not - a fact that played into the ship's demise when it failed to fully reverse course upon encountering the iceberg.
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