Hopi Petroglyph Sites




Hopi Petroglyph Sites

Site Information

Country: United States of America
State: Tuba City, Arizona
Location: 34° 5' 16" N - 112° 3' 23" W
Field Documentation Date(s): To be determined
Project Release Date(s): December 16th, 2011
Time Range: 1200 CE - 1950 CE
Culture: Hopi
Site Authority: Navajo Nation Historic Preservation Department, Hopi Cultural Preservation Office
Heritage Listing: WMF Watch List Site
world map with location

Site Description

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Tutuveni is an important site along the Hopi pilgrimage route to Ongtuvqa, also known as the Grand Canyon. The site lies west of the Hopi Reservation in Arizona, and within the neighboring Navajo Nation. Meaning Newspaper Rock in Hopi, Tutuveni contains 5,000 petroglyphs of Hopi clan symbols and is the largest known collection of clan symbols in the American Southwest. Among Tutuveni's 150 sandstone boulders are the records of more than 1,000 years of Hopi history and culture.

Hopi Translation: Tutuveni pas itamuy hopituy aw pas himu, antsa Ongmokwisee pantso moti e kiwisngwu, puma natoyla pen na ya ngwu owat ang a. Ovi iitamuy Hopituy niq pam Tutuveni yan matsiwa. Pu'antsa (Grand Canyon) piw yam matsiwa Sakwa tuvqa. Tutveni ev (5000) wuhak tapamveni, pam iita natoyla. Tutuvnit ev pas sus wuhak tapamveni yev it tutskwa ev ee. Yev piw (150) owat ang peniw ung wa, pam ita natoyla antsa yev hisat sinom yes kam yev it owat ang pen to ta, ii ita navotiniq pam ita mungam ita tutskway ngu tani.

Hopi clan petroglyphs completely cover the sides and tops of a number of towering sandstone blocks up to 5 meters tall and are found sporadically on the surfaces of smaller boulders along the base of a small mesa that forms part of the Echo Cliffs. The style of the petroglyphs at Tutuveni is remarkably consistent: iconic symbols, typically of recognizable animals, plants, or cultural items, and of moderate size (about 10x10cm). Unlike most large petroglyph sites, the symbols at Tutuveni rarely overlap. Even more atypical is the fact that the symbols appear in rows of repeated images – up to 20 or more in a line – representing repeated visits by members of the same clan.
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Historic photograph of Hopi girls grinding corn

History

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The concentration of clear-cut clan symbols at Tutuveni, corresponding to known historic and extinct Hopi clans, is absolutely unique in the American Southwest. The site was a stopping point on a pilgrimage to the Grand Canyon undertaken by male initiates of the Hopi village (kitsoki) initiation ceremony, the Wuwtsim. Traditionally, all Hopi men underwent Wuwtsim initiation between adolescence and marriage. Ceramics associated with the site, the dating of ancestral Hopi villages in the surrounding area, and the very heavy repatination of the petroglyphs at Tutuveni point to the use of the site by ancestral Hopi populations beginning in at least the 1500s, and perhaps as early as 1200 CE. As a record of clan activity over the past several centuries, the Tutuveni site is vital in educating younger generations of Hopis about the traditional cultural history of the tribe.

The Hopi Tribe

Since time immemorial the Hopi people have lived in Hopituskwa (Hopi land) and have maintained their sacred covenant to live as peaceful and humble farmers, respectful of the land and its resources. Over the centuries, they have survived as a tribe, and to this day have managed to retain their culture, language and religion despite influences from the outside world. The Hopi still occupy their ancestral villages, some of which were founded up to 900 years ago, making them the oldest continuously occupied places in North America. Hopi ancestors once lived across much of the Western United States including Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, California and Mexico.

The Hopi Salt Trail

The Tutuveni Petroglyph Site lies along a 60-mile foot trail between the Hopi Mesas and Ongtuvqa, the Grand Canyon. Historically, young Hopi men who were participating in the village initiation ceremony, the Wuwtsim, followed this trail to collect salt from deposits on the canyon floor. Initiates stopped at more than three dozen places along the trail to make ritual offerings during the pilgrimage, purifying them and teaching them important traditional knowledge. The pilgrimage was long and dangerous, including a descent to the floor of the Grand Canyon by ropes and pecked hand-and-foot-holds where initiates finally gathered salt from a sacred deposit. The week-long trip tested the initiates' strength and courage. Completion of the pilgrimage marked the young men's transition to adulthood and the safe return of initiates to the village was a cause for celebration.

Hopi Clan Symbols

Hopi clans are made up of individuals who trace their ancestry through their mother's line, known as "matrilineal descent". Today there are 33 living Hopi clans, but more than 70 can be traced back into the historic period and many dozens more would have been found in the hundreds of ancestral villages covering the American Southwest. Each Hopi clan has a totemic affiliation with an object or aspect of nature, for example, the Bow Clan or the Bear Clan. Clans acquired their names during the migration period when, after emerging from the Sipapuni, the opening into the current Fourth World, they were instructed to search for Tuuwanasavi, the earth center on the Hopi Mesas. Clans traveled far and wide leaving their "footprints" on the landscape by building villages and making petroglyphs. Clans who traveled together acquired related totems. For example, the Bear, Bear Strap, and Spider Clans got their names from sequential encounters with a Bear carcass (the first clan became Bear, the second who cut carrying straps from the hide became Bear Strap, and the third who saw a spider web in the skull became Spider).
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Perspective of Dawa Park, created from laser scan data

Project Narrative

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At Tutuveni, there has been increasing vandalism over the last 30 years, including painting, scratching, and chiseling of petroglyphs. In an effort to gain support for preserving and protecting Tutuveni, Associate Professor Wesley Bernardini, from University of Redlands, nominated Tutuveni for the 2008 World Monuments Fund Watch List. With the support of World Monuments Fund, CyArk has worked in collaboration with the Hopi Cultural Preservation Office, the Navajo Nation Historic Preservation Department, and the University of Redlands, to digitally preserve Tutuveni and Dawa Park. As with other archaeological resources found on Navajo lands, at Tutuveni, a special permit from the Navajo Nation Historic Preservation Office had to be obtained in order to access the site and collect the 3D laser scanning and photography data. The Digital Preservation project has created a permanent digital archive of these two important Hopi sites, as well as educational material which will teach school-age children about the history of Tutuveni and the importance of respecting the past.
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Preservation

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Considering their age and relatively close proximity to well traveled roads, the Tutuveni petroglyphs survived in a remarkably well-preserved condition into the mid-twentieth century. Unfortunately, in the last few decades, the site has suffered from increasing vandalism, including painting, scratching, and chiseling of petroglyphs. The sheer number of petroglyphs present at Tutuveni means that most of the site is still intact, but a recent study indicates that up to 10% of the symbols have been damaged. Analysis of datable graffiti shows that almost 80% of the vandalism at Tutuveni happened recently, between 1980 and 2005. In 2010, Arizona Public Services funded the installation of a fence to surround and protect the site. Fortunately, two relatively complete sets of photographs from the 1930s and 1970s allow most of the site to be digitally reconstructed back to its pristine, early 20th-century condition using the highly accurate 3D model and high-resolution photographs generated by CyArk.
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Area Descriptions

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Dawa Park
Tutuveni
Boulder 13
Boulder 14
Boulder 17
Boulder 18
Boulder 30
Boulder 33
Boulder 34
Boulder 35
Boulder 37
Boulder 43
Boulder 48
Boulder 52
Boulder 55
Boulder 60
Boulder 8

Dawa Park

Dawa Park Description:

Forty two miles southeast of Tutuveni, Dawa Park is a very old and very large petroglyph site located along the Dinnebito Wash on the Hopi Reservation of Arizona. Petroglyphs extend for more than a mile along a 200 foot cliff face, ranging from isolated symbols to panels more than 50 feet tall. The panels date primarily to the Basketmaker II (ca. 2000 BCE – 400 CE) and Basketmaker III (ca. 500-700 CE) periods, featuring larger than life-size anthropomorphs with elaborate head-gear and costumes, processions, birds, and flute players. Later images dating to the Pueblo III period (ca. 1150-1300 CE) are also found here.


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Tutuveni

Tutuveni Description:

Tutuveni is an important site along the Hopi pilgrimage route to Ongtuvqa, also known as the Grand Canyon. The site lies west of the Hopi Reservation in Arizona, and within the neighboring Navajo Nation. Meaning Newspaper Rock in Hopi, Tutuveni contains 5,000 petroglyphs of Hopi clan symbols and is the largest known collection of clan symbols in the American Southwest. Among Tutuveni's 150 sandstone boulders are the records of more than 1,000 years of Hopi history and culture. Clan petroglyphs completely cover the sides and tops of a number of towering sandstone blocks up to 5 meters tall and are found sporadically on the surfaces of smaller boulders along the base of a small mesa that forms part of the Echo Cliffs. The style of the petroglyphs at Tutuveni is remarkably consistent: iconic symbols, typically of recognizable animals, plants, or cultural items, and of moderate size (about 10x10cm). Unlike most large petroglyph sites, the symbols at Tutuveni rarely overlap. Even more atypical is the fact that the symbols appear in rows of repeated images – up to 20 or more in a line – representing repeated visits by members of the same clan.


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Boulder 13

Boulder 13 Description:

Boulder 13, located on the northern end of the boulder field, is a low, flat boulder roughly 3 meters square. Originally upright and forming the bottom half of a taller boulder with Boulder 12 (which has slumped off to the west), Boulder 13 is now resting at a 30 degree angle. Petroglyphs are concentrated on the northeast face and include Sun, Sun Forehead, and Bear Clan symbols.


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Boulder 14

Boulder 14 Description:

Boulder 14 is located just south of Boulder 13. It is a tall, narrow boulder, roughly four meters high, decorated on three sides (south, north, and east). Petroglyphs are abundant on the north and south faces, which include Maasaw (Fire), Coyote, Water, and Corn Clan symbols.


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Boulder 17

Boulder 17 Description:

Boulder 17 is a large, rectangular rock sitting at the front (western) edge of the Tutuveni boulder field. All four vertical faces are heavily decorated. The south panel features a long row of 18 Corn Clan symbols and four long rows of Lizard Clan symbols.


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Boulder 18

Boulder 18 Description:

Boulder 18 sits just south of Boulder 17 at the western edge of the boulder field. Once perched atop a small pedestal of rock, this boulder has slumped and now rests on its western face. The three remaining vertical faces and the top are heavily decorated. Bear, Water, and Spider Clan symbols are especially prominent.


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Boulder 30

Boulder 30 Description:

Boulder 30 is a relatively small (two meter diameter) rock at the front (western) edge of Tutuveni. Its prominence and small size has attracted unwanted attention, as a chunk of the south face has been hacked off and carted away by vandals. The remaining section of the south face preserves a rich collection of Corn and Bear Clan symbols.


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Boulder 33

Boulder 33 Description:

Boulder 33 was once the base of a larger rock with Boulder 32, which has slumped off to the west. The slumping is considered to be very ancient because the patina on the top of Boulder 33 matches that of its sides. The top panel is decorated with a large collection of Maasaw (Fire) Clan symbols.


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Boulder 34

Boulder 34 Description:

Boulders 34, 35, and 36 were once part of a single flat, rectangular rock. Boulders 34 and 35 have slumped dramatically and now rest sideways on their narrow south faces. The north and top faces have the darkest patina and are therefore the oldest; they feature a series of Sun and Snake Clan symbols.


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Boulder 35

Boulder 35 Description:

Boulder 35 was once the top half of a larger rock with boulder 34. Only the top face preserves its dark patina and old petroglyphs, which include a rare row of Red Ant Clan symbols – a clan that is now extinct among Hopi villages.


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Boulder 37

Boulder 37 Description:

Boulder 37 is a low, flat, round rock heavily decorated on the top face. Its complex symbols include Qööqöqlö katsinas, found among more familiar Corn and Bear Clan symbols.


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Boulder 43

Boulder 43 Description:

Boulder 43 is a large, oval rock that has cracked in half. Dark patina remains only on the top face, which includes several Sun and Katsina Clan symbols that have been chiseled away.


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Boulder 48

Boulder 48 Description:

Boulder 48 is the central and largest boulder at Tutuveni. It forms a large rectangle, roughly 4 meters on one side and 3.5 meters tall. All four vertical panels and the horizontal top panel are completely covered with petroglyphs. Sixty percent (2,537) of all the symbols at Tutuveni are found on Boulder 48. It is the most heavily repatinated boulder and as such, is almost certainly the oldest. Its prominence of place at Tutuveni made it the most desirable canvas for clan signatures by the first generations of Hopi men to complete the Wuwtsim pilgrimage.


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Boulder 52

Boulder 52 Description:

Boulder 52 is a smaller triangular rock behind Boulder 48. The west face contains a long row of bear paws and a row of coyote heads.


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Boulder 55

Boulder 55 Description:

Boulder 55 is a long, low rock located just east of Boulder 48 in the center of the site. The dark patina of its west face marks it as the oldest on the rock, and includes several katsinas with elaborate head gear, a number of which have been chiseled or pecked away by vandals.


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Boulder 60

Boulder 60 Description:

Boulder 60 is a triangular rock, about two meters square. The moderately dark patina of its top face is almost entirely devoted to Spider Clan symbols.


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Boulder 8

Boulder 8 Description:

Boulder 8 is the northernmost of the “core” boulders comprising the oldest, central portion of the site. Petroglyphs are concentrated on the west face and include rows of Bear Strap, Water, and Sun Forehead Clan symbols.


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Credits:

more     - Pauline Eveillard
            Senior Program Associate

CyArk
     - Taline Ayanyan
            Production Supervisor

     - Justin Barton
            Technical Services Manager

     - Scott Lee
            Production Supervisor

     - Elizabeth Lee
            Director of Projects and Development

     - Kristina Sturm
            Project Manager

     - Wesley Bernardini
            Associate Professor and Chair of Department of Sociology and Anthropology

     - Leigh Kuwanwisiwma
            Director

     - Lee Wayne Lomayestewa
            Repatriation Coordinator

     - Ronald P. Maldonado
            Program Manager, Cultural Resource Compliance Section

     - Patrick Secakuku
            Business Manager