Deadwood




Deadwood

Site Information

Country: United States of America
State: Deadwood, South Dakota
Location: 44° 22' 35" N - 103° 43' 46" W
Field Documentation Date(s): May 28th, 2003
Project Release Date(s): January 9th, 2006
Time Range: 1876 CE - 1910 CE
Era: Old West
Culture: Old West
Site Authority: Deadwood Historic Preservation Commission
Heritage Listing: National Register of Historic Places
world map with location

Animation of the City of Deadwood, created from laser scan data

Site Description

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Deadwood is a small town in the Black Hills of Lawrence County, South Dakota, occupying about 9.8 sq km (3.8 sq mi). The town's population is less than fourteen hundred, and its small physical size and population is the result of geographic constraints from the surrounding hills. These steep hills, however, were vital to Deadwood's founding: the town got its start as a mining camp during the gold rush of 1876 when gold was discovered in them.
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History

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Deadwood was founded with the economic boom brought on by the gold rush of 1876. The city attracted miners and the lawless likes of Calamity Jane and Wild Bill Hickok. But after the initial reckless phase of the gold rush, the city settled down to enjoy its newly accumulated wealth. The town is small because hilly geographic constricted expansion, and the wealthy built up the downtown area of Main Street. In September of 1878 a devastating fire destroyed most of the wooden structures of the downtown. In the quarter century after the great fire, Deadwood experienced an extraordinary building boom, and the gold rich town became home to a dazzling array of nineteenth and early twentieth century architectural styles such as Richardsonian Romanesque, Second Empire, and Queen Anne. Many of the saloons, gaming houses, and hotels on Main Street have striking Italianate features. As Deadwood rose from the ashes and adorned itself with new architecture, much of the new construction was brick and mortar. Deadwood's mining economy slowed as the twentieth century progressed, and as a result the grand turn-of-the-century buildings gracing downtown quietly remain.
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Project Narrative

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Lessons learned from the demise of historic main streets across the United States inspired Deadwood's decision to "preserve" its historic district through documentation. In the spring of 2003, TSP Architects of Rapid City and other support teams used the Cyrax 2500 3D laser scanner to document 5,992 linear feet of historic building facades along the downtown Main street, approximately one half mile on each side. "No traditional method of documentation would give the detail of structures like these with elements of rough faced stone and ornamental iron balcony" said Mitch Schefcik, one of the original team members that is now Optira, Inc. "We needed an authentic and exact documentation for the possible recreation of turn-of-the-century carefully restored architecture. 3D laser scanning was the only clear option." Using 3D laser scanning was a forward looking decision since in 2003, laser scan surveys were still fairly new. "Survey control is an important part of 3D laser scan documentation" said Mike Frecks, Vice President of Optira, Inc. At Deadwood it was additionally important to coordinate the new survey with the historic coordinate system established by the Homesteak Mining Company's Open Pit Mine and land management office, a system initially established in the 1800s. Many original monuments were incorporated and a comprehensive topographical map of Deadwood Main Street. The resulting final document combines data typical of HABS/HAER documentation as well as that of a topographical map.
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Photograph of the Armour and Co. Branch looking north on Sherman Street

Preservation

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Because of the canyon location surrounded by pine trees, Deadwood is a natural site for reoccurring wildfires, the most devastating of which was that of 1878. Because the city is constantly at risk, the entire historic district has been designated as endangered by the National Historic Register.
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Area Descriptions

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Lee St to Wall St (East)
Ayres & Wardman Building
Ben Holstein Building
D. Holzman Building
De Mouth, Whelan & Graves Building
Dickinson & Freeman Building
Frank Hamilton Building
Graves & Curtis Building
Levinson Block
Munter & Lillanthal Building
The Bullock Hotel
The Bullock Hotel Annex
Wertheimer Brothers Building
Lee St to Wall St (West)
Black Hills Motors
Bodega Saloon
Buffalo Saloon
First National Bank
Gottstein & Franklin Building
J. Shubert Building
John Nye Block
Rosenthal's Palace
Shoudy's Meat Market
Lower Main St
Adams Brothers Block
Ben Baer Building
Bueter Block
Bullock-Clark Building
Combination Theater
Fairmont Hotel
First I.H. Chase Building
Hogarth Bros. Livery Stable
Hogarth Bros. Livery Stable II
Hogarth Bros. Livery Stable III
Horace Clark Apex Building
L.M. Parker Building
M.B. Wilson Building
Ruth Brothers Building
Second I.H. Chase Building
Site of the Schwarzwald Building
Off Main Street
Armour & Co. Branch
Deadwood Auditorium & Park
F.D. Smith Block
Hattenbach Brothers Building
Homestake Slime Plant
Martin & Mason-Clark Building
The Adams Block
Pine St to Lee St
Cuthbertson Block
Franklin Garage
Masonic Temple
Phoenix Block
Waite Block & Annex
Shine St to Lee St
Black Hills Bank
Butler Building
Elk's Building
Franklin Hotel
Gold Dust
Goldberg's Grocery Store
Herrmann Treber Building
John H. Burns Block
Merchant's Hotel Site
Telephone Company Building
United Methodist Church

Lee St to Wall St (East)

Lee St to Wall St (East) Description:

Home of the Ayres & Wardman Building, Ben Holstein Building, D. Holzman Building, Dickinson & Freeman Building, the Bullock Hotel, and many other landmarks.


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Ayres & Wardman Building

Ayres & Wardman Building Description:

641 Main Street (1879/1894-5) - R.C. Lake established his hardware store on this lot in 1877, and hired George Ayres as clerk. The fire of 1879 destroyed Lake's store, with the exception of the newly-constructed brick warehouse, and he built a new one-story brick building that year. Lake retired from the business in 1882, and Ayres took control with his new partner, Ismon.

Ismon was replaced by Ben Wardman in 1884. Ten years later, fire on the opposite side of Main Street damaged their building. It was then expanded to two stories, and a new cast iron storefront was added in 1895, designed by Mr. Ayres, himself.

In 1900 Ayres renamed his business George V. Ayres & Co. He purchased the Bullock Hotel in 1904 and moved his store to that location. Wilson, Kenny and Co. subsequently ran their hardware store from this building.

The White Automotive Company, one of Deadwood's first automobile showrooms, was established in this building in 1925. Deadwood Hardware, Black Hills Tires, and Fulton Auto Supply were other tenants in the 1930's.


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Ben Holstein Building

Ben Holstein Building Description:

649 Main Street (1879/1880) - The back half of this building was built in the summer of 1879 as a fireproof warehouse. It survived the fire of 1879 and the storefront was added in 1880 for Holstein's grocery and liquor store.

It was later owned by Nathan Franklin who ran the Palace Pharmacy here, and was then Faust's drug store.

The local Eagles Lodge, organized in December 1900, purchased this building in 1907 and held their meetings here for many years.

Note the stained-glassed windows in the transom above the storefront. They were purchased by Deadwood's Historic Preservation Commission in 1990 to prevent their removal by a former owner of the building.


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D. Holzman Building

D. Holzman Building Description:

647 Main Street (1879/1880) - Holzman built a one-story brick building here to house his clothing store after the fire of 1879. The second story was added the following year.

The back half of the building was built before the fire, and was incorporated into the new construction.

The Zoellner Brothers' Clothing Store was a long-time tenant. The storefront was remodeled in 1935 for the J.E. Schlatter Co. Department Store, with the addition of stained glass and black glass tiles. The black glass has since been replaced with stucco.


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De Mouth, Whelan & Graves Building

De Mouth, Whelan & Graves Building Description:

639 Main Street (1894) - DeMouth, Whealen & Graves had a new furniture, glassware and crockery store here in 1893. It was destroyed by fire a few months later.

The partners rebuilt on the old foundation in 1894. The original brick building now lies behind layers of asphalt and barnboard, added in later remodelings.

The Ladies Bazaar sold women's clothing here from 1899 to 1904. It was replaced by I. Salinsky's New York Store in 1908.

The New York Store moved to the Phoenix Block up the street in 1912. Other tenants have included the '76 Inn, the Princess Cafe, and upstairs, the Powder Puff Beauty Shop.


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Dickinson & Freeman Building

Dickinson & Freeman Building Description:

643 Main Street (1879/1894-95) - Dickinson and Freeman built a one-story brick building on this lot after the fire of 1879. The tenants, Browning and Wringrose, were contemplating construction of a second story when the fire of 1894 damaged the building, and they moved out.

A new front and second story were added by the owners, and Matt Klopp opened a restaurant here. His venture was short-lived, and when he moved out in 1895, W.H. Carter opened the Derby Saloon and Billiard Hall.

The Dreamland Theater opened here in 1908, and was succeeded in that year by the Scenic Theater, whose motto was "The Best of Everything". It operated as the Isis in the early 1930's and was remodeled and reopened under that name with new sound equipment on March 29, 1935 featuring "Babes in Toyland" with Laurel and Hardy, and assorted novelty acts. The theater continued operations into the 1960's as the Flame.


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Frank Hamilton Building

Frank Hamilton Building Description:

651-651 Main Street (1881/1896) - After the fire of 1879, the firms of Hamilton & Rockfellow and Knowles & Marshman built a double wood-frame building on this lot only to have it burn to the ground in January, 1881.

This building was then constructed. Each side had a central entrance until 1896, when the doors were moved to create larger window display areas.


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Graves & Curtis Building

Graves & Curtis Building Description:

645 Main Street (1879/1880) - The rear portion of this building was built in the summer of 1879 as a fireproof warehouse to serve a wooden furniture and housewares store facing Main Street.

The warehouse walls survived the fire in September of that year, and the new brick store front was built in the summer of 1880.

Similar businesses occupied this building until the 1920's, when one of the show windows was converted into a garage door and the building became automobile storage. It later returned to retail use.


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Levinson Block

Levinson Block Description:

657 Main Street (1910/1938) The Black Hills Company, Architect - In 1880 Ben Baer and Max Fishel built a double-front brick building on this lot. Baer operated a liquor store on his half until going into partnership with Harris Franklin across the street in 1884. Fishel ran a stationery store in his half of the building.

Sol Levinson moved his jewelry store here in 1909, and added a second story and a new front to the building in 1910. But Levinson never enjoyed the new, expanded facility. He died two months before the project was completed.

Bloom's Shoe and Clothing Co. was a tenant for several years during the 1920's. The Old Style took possession in 1938 and remodeled the storefront in keeping with their frontier theme. The interior has changed very little since 1938.


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Munter & Lillanthal Building

Munter & Lillanthal Building Description:

655 Main Street (1880/c.1935) - Munter & Lillianthal opened their original wood-frame clothing store on this lot in 1877. They built a brick building here in 1880, but moved out a short time later.

The building has housed a variety of commercial ventures since then, including Zipp's shoe store, Karcher's shoe store, Black Hills Studio, and the Deadwood Drug Company drug store. The building front was replaced c.1935 in a style similar to the building next-door. The logs are a more recent addition.


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The Bullock Hotel

The Bullock Hotel Description:

631-33-35 Main Street (1894-96) - Sol Star and Seth Bullock arrived in Deadwood in 1876 and built a hardware store on this site. They constructed a new brick warehouse on the back of the lot in 1880, with a two-story, wood-frame store facing Main Street.

The fire of 1894 swept down the other side of Main Street, but flames crossed to the hardware store and destroyed it as well, leaving the brick warehouse. Bullock, recognizing the city's need for a legitimate hotel, built the present structure. The pick and white sandstone was quarried in nearby Boulder Canyon. It was transported first to Sturgis, where it was tooled, and then loaded back on the train for the trip to Deadwood. The grand opening was held in April, 1896. Bullock is best known as Lawrence County's first sheriff, and for his close friendship with Theodore Roosevelt. Bullock sold the hotel to George Ayres in 1904. Ayres operated his hardware store on the main floor while the hotel upstairs stayed in operation from 1904 to 1919 as the Holzner, and later as the Ayres Hotel.

The original brick warehouse can still be seen along Wall Street, with its iron fire shutters. Many of the hotel's interior features remain intact, including the massive staircase and skylights.


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The Bullock Hotel Annex

The Bullock Hotel Annex Description:

637 Main Street (1896) - While the adjacent Hotel was under construction Bullock was negotiating for the purchase of this lot, left vacant since the fire of 1894.

It is unknown why only the first story was constructed. Stone was quarried and cut for the upper stories, but the building was never finished. The present second story was added in later years. This served as Star & Bullocks hardware store after the hotel was built.

In 1900 it was converted into a buffet operated in conjunction with the hotel. It operated as the Totem Saloon for several years beginning in 1903, and was later occupied as a second hand store, a beauty shop and even a meat locker.


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Wertheimer Brothers Building

Wertheimer Brothers Building Description:

653 Main Street (1879/c.1888/c.1940) - M.J. and Louis Wertheimer established their dry goods store in Deadwood in 1877, and moved to this location later that year. Their first building burned in the fire of 1879, and they replaced it with a one-story brick building.

Another fire c. 1888 resulted in damage to their building, and they rebuilt with a new second story.

Wertheimer's moved out in 1909, and the Zoellner Brothers Clothing Store became the tenant. The storefront was remodeled c.1940 with the addition of black glass around the show windows and new yellow brick in the second story.


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Lee St to Wall St (West)

Lee St to Wall St (West) Description:

Home of Buffalo Saloon, Black Hills Motors, Shoudy's Meat Market, The John Nye Block, Rosenthal's Palace, and many other landmarks.


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Black Hills Motors

Black Hills Motors Description:

630 Main Street (1939) - Don Smith, Architect - Deadwood's very first automobile garage and showroom was opened on this corner in 1909 by C. J. Faehndrich. Here, Faehrendich sold the "Incomparable White Steamer", which retailed for $2,000.00. The newspaper reporter was impressed with the vehicle's performance. "The machine demonstrated that it can go over any road traveled by horses and wagons, and it is a swell looker as well as an easy rider." Faehndrich also operated a taxi service to Spearfish, and an "after supper service" chauffeuring Deadwood residents around town for 50 cents each. The old building was replaced by this structure in 1939, which served as a Dodge and Plymouth showroom and Texaco Station. There were originally two garage bays, but one was removed when Wall Street was widened c.1980. The streamlined style of this building is rarely seen in South Dakota, making it a valuable part of Deadwood's architectural history.


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Bodega Saloon

Bodega Saloon Description:

664 Main Street (1880) - Patrick Power, Architect - When constructed in 1880, the first floor of this building housed the offices of the Northwest Express, Stage & Transportation Company. The Bodega Saloon has occupied the main floor since at least 1893, and was founded by W.H. Carter, who later operated the Totem Saloon in Seattle. Deadwood's first "moving pictures" were shown here in 1899. The tile floor, bar fixtures, and other accouterments remain from a remodeling of the saloon in 1902. The basement has housed a variety of businesses including "The German Village Restaurant". When originally constructed, the third floor featured a lodge room that was used by the Masons before their temple was built at the turn of the century, and then by the Eagles and the Elks until 1904. After their abandonment by the fraternal lodges, the upper floors were occupied by businesses of questionable character, such as Fern's Mecca Rooms. Ellen Lucille Moore, alias "Big Lu", operated the Mecca Rooms for several years before her arrest in 1943 for "white slavery". The imprisonment of Big Lu allowed the military to lift an order declaring Deadwood to be out-of-bounds to military men as a "menace to military health and morale". The electric sign hanging in front of the building is a replica of a sign that was installed in 1903.


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Buffalo Saloon

Buffalo Saloon Description:

658 Main Street (1879) - The Russell Brothers constructed this building as a poolhall in 1879. James Russell moved to Billings, Montana in 1881 and was murdered there in a billiard parlor while attempting to collect a debt. His brother, Michael, brought in a new partner and continued to run the property for many years.

Mike Russell claimed a friendship with Buffalo Bill Cody that began in Kansas in 1863. They frequently traveled together, and Cody was often a guest at Russell's home. Paintings in the collection of the Buffalo Bill museum in Cody, Wyoming show Russell in Cody's company.

A fire in 1916 destroyed the adjacent buildings and damaged the front of this structure. Several remodelings followed. By the 1930's, the facility was known as the Buffalo Saloon.

The canopy was constructed c.1942 in an attempt to simulate the "Wild West" period of Deadwood's history. The second-story balcony is a replica of the original and was typical of those found on many buildings destroyed in the fire of 1879.


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First National Bank

First National Bank Description:

666 Main Street (1879/1910/1950-51) - The Black Hills Co./A. Moorman & Co., Architects - The bank of Stebbins, Post & Co. opened on this corner in 1877. A reorganization in 1878 resulted in the creation of the First National Bank of Deadwood. They rebuilt on this site after the fire of 1879.

In July, 1881, bank teller B. P. Dague brought an English ivy plant into his office, and it quickly made its way up the wall. When the plant was finally cut back in 1905 the local paper mourned the loss of this "Old Deadwood landmark." But the bank continued operation in spite of its loss, and remodeled this building extensively in 1910 with the assistance of the Black Hills Co., a local architecture and building firm.

The marble storefront dates from a later 1950's remodeling designed by A. Moorman & Co. The bank was absorbed into Norwest Bank and moved to the corner of Pine and Main Streets in recent years. The dates on the cornice refer to the date of the organization of the First National Bank of Deadwood and the date the present building was remodeled.


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Gottstein & Franklin Building

Gottstein & Franklin Building Description:

662 Main Street (1879) - Meier Gottstein operated a wholesale liquor business in Deadwood as early as 1878. Harris Franklin went into partnership with him, and built this building in 1879. Gottstein sold out to Franklin in 1883, who brought in competitor Ben Baer as a partner the following year. Franklin became one of Deadwood's wealthiest residents, and was involved in the construction of the Franklin Hotel, described previously. Carl Shaloob ran a poolhall here in the 1920's. By the 1930's this building housed the Bodega Cafe, which was closed in 1994.


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J. Shubert Building

J. Shubert Building Description:

638 Main Street (1894) - A fire in March, 1894 started near this location and destroyed all of the buildings north and east of this point on this side of the street, and many on the opposite side, as well.

Schubert was the first to rebuild, and this building was completed within 60 days.

Pete's Exchange Saloon and W.H. Sprague's Lunch Counter were early tenants. The Mint Bar and Cafe occupied the main floor in more recent years.


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John Nye Block

John Nye Block Description:

650 Main Street (1880/c.1945) - This was the site of the first commercial building in Deadwood, constructed in 1876 by Isaac Brown and Craven Lee. The lot was later acquired by John Nye, early Deadwood pioneer, who had several buildings on Main Street.

The current building was constructed in 1880. The cornerstone was laid at 5:00 p.m., July 17th of that year, the first cornerstone ceremony held in Deadwood. At the ceremony, Nye inquired of the crowd of spectators what the name of the building should be, "and instantly a shout went up from a hundred throats, 'Nye's Hall,'" or so the newspaper reported.

The storefront was occupied by a dry goods store. The second floor served as an opera house with a saloon conveniently located in the basement. The opening show was the comedy "Our Boys". The building also housed an early bowling alley watched over by a short-lived fraternal organization, the Knights of Gambrinus. Gus Keller's meat market was here for many years. The pink storefront was the result of a 1940's remodeling for Sederstrom's Restaurant.


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Rosenthal's Palace

Rosenthal's Palace Description:

652 Main Street (1892) - Hein Bros., Architects - Built at a cost of $8,500, this was Sol Rosenthal's clothing store, referred to as Rosenthal's Palace. It was a vast improvement over his previous one-story shop across the street.

Rosenthal retired in 1901, and the building was divided down the middle and shared by Nathan Colman's confectionary and Sol Levinson's jewelry store. Levinson was shot by his estranged business partner, Leo Winsberg, while working in his store on December 4, 1901. Winsberg was sent to prison and Levinson recovered. The second floor served as the Elk's meeting rooms from 1907 to 1909.

In the 1920's and 1930's this building was home to the Arnold and Minard Grocery Store.


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Shoudy's Meat Market

Shoudy's Meat Market Description:

660 Main Street (1879) - Shoudy's Market was located here as early as 1876, and was rebuilt within days of the fire of 1879. Some accounts place the arrest of Jack McCall, for the killing of Wild Bill Hickok, outside the door of this building.

Shoudy occupied the right side of the building for many years, and a variety of commercial ventures used the left side, which originally had a separate entrance.


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Lower Main St

Lower Main St Description:

This block covers the building on both side of Main Street north of Wall Street.


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Adams Brothers Block

Adams Brothers Block Description:

629 Main Street (1880/1893) - The Adams Brothers Banner Grocery opened on the west side of Main Street in 1877. After the fire of 1879, the brothers purchased this lot and built a one-story brick building which opened in November, 1880.

W.E. Adams eventually became one of Deadwood's wealthiest merchants. He built three large store buildings on Sherman Street, and donated the Adams Memorial Museum to the city in 1930. Adams Brothers moved to another location in the mid-1880's and this building housed a succession of saloons. The second story of this building was added in 1893, but the original decorative brick parapet is still visible along Wall Street.

The most successful saloon at this location was known simply as The Brick, where men gathered during national elections to hear the results, which arrived by private telegraph wire. This was part of the adjacent Combination Theater after 1901.

A motorcycle sales and service shop operated here in the 1920's. Some of the original pressed tin ceiling can still be found in the rear portion of this building.


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Ben Baer Building

Ben Baer Building Description:

626 Main Street (1898) - Hein Bros., Architects - Ben Baer arrived in Deadwood in 1876, conducting a wholesale liquor business under the firm name of Mackenzie, Baer & Co. The partnership soon dissolved, leaving Baer in charge. He formed a new partnership with competitor Harris Franklin in 1884, and eventually moved into the banking business.

Baer built this building in 1898 as income property. The main floor was occupied by Sullivan, Kinney & Flarsheim, a plumbing company. A rooming house known as the Holzner, occupied the second floor until 1901, when a fire resulted in the eviction of all tenants.

For a time in the 1910's, Sing You operated a restaurant here. By the 1920's, the storefront had been modified for use as an automobile service garage, and a gas pump stood at curbside.


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Bueter Block

Bueter Block Description:

596 Main Street (1876) - J.B. Tierney's Silver Star Saloon was this buildings first tenant. It continued to operate as a saloon under various names for many years.

It then housed Ayres Hardware Store, in business in Deadwood since the 1870's.


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Bullock-Clark Building

Bullock-Clark Building Description:

616-618 Main Street (1894) - The original Bella Union Theater and the IXL (I Excell) Hotel occupied these lots from 1876 until the fire of 1879. After that fire, Mrs. Seth Bullock and Horace Clark each built new 25-foot wide buildings, which were consumed by the Fire of 1894. Bullock and Clark then agreed to construct a single structure on their two lots, and this building is the result.

The first tenant was the Boston Restaurant. Next Door was the Deadwood Beer Hall. The second floor served as barracks for the Salvation Army for several years.

The second story was later occupied as a house of prostitution which operated until 1980.


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Combination Theater

Combination Theater Description:

627 Main Street (1901/c.1925) - Fremont Ward, Architect - Michael Heffron had this building built in 1901 at a cost of $6,500. The side and rear walls are stone. A saloon and gambling hall operated on the first floor and a variety theater occupied the second. By 1915, the building was vacant.

A large front entrance was cut into this building c.1925 to allow access for automobile storage. A few years later, the Ruth Brothers expanded from their building next door to the corner of Main and Wall Streets. In more recent years, this was the location of the Deadwood Trading Post.


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Fairmont Hotel

Fairmont Hotel Description:

628 Main Street (1898) - J.W. Gibbs, Architect - The hotel was originally known as the Mansion House. The basement featured a Turkish bath, a plunge bath, and a barber shop. As part of the Deadwood "Badlands," the upper floors witnessed a variety of illegal activities. For example, in 1907, Prentice Bernard, alias "Vinegar Rowan," attacked a prostitute for whom he had become infatuated. He burst into her room and shot her customer, but in the following struggle, Rowan accidentally shot himself. The wound was fatal.


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First I.H. Chase Building

First I.H. Chase Building Description:

604 Main Street (1897) - Mart Alber, Architect - This small building housed a closing store when first constructed. Ben Simpson, on of Deadwood's well respected African-American citizens, later ran a poolhall here. A cigar company sign can be seen painted on the side of the building.

Chase's first commercial venture was a clothing store which opened in Deadwood in June, 1877. At the peak of his career, he had seven branches operating in communities in the Black Hills.


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Hogarth Bros. Livery Stable

Hogarth Bros. Livery Stable Description:

607 Main Street (1900/1905/1912/1923) - James and William Hogarth operated a blacksmith shop and livery stable from the two-story portion of this building. Their original one-story shop was replaced by a new one-story brick building in 1900. The second story was added to the original building in 1905 to provide a place for painting wagons.

William Hogarth retired from the business in 1909. James then expanded the business by building the addition to the left, a foundry, in 1912. As was often the case, the livery and blacksmith business adapted to automobile repair, and the addition to the right was constructed in 1923. These building continued as automobile sales and service until 1989.


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Hogarth Bros. Livery Stable II

Hogarth Bros. Livery Stable II Description:

607 Main Street (1900/1905/1912/1923) - James and William Hogarth operated a blacksmith shop and livery stable from the two-story portion of this building. Their original one-story shop was replaced by a new one-story brick building in 1900. The second story was added to the original building in 1905 to provide a place for painting wagons. William Hogarth retired from the business in 1909. James then expanded the business by building the addition to the left, a foundry, in 1912. As was often the case, the livery and blacksmith business adapted to automobile repair, and the addition to the right was constructed in 1923. These buildings continued as automobile sales and service until 1989.


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Hogarth Bros. Livery Stable III

Hogarth Bros. Livery Stable III Description:

607 Main Street (1900/1905/1912/1923) - James and William Hogarth operated a blacksmith shop and livery stable from the two-story portion of this building. Their original one-story shop was replaced by a new one-story brick building in 1900. The second story was added to the original building in 1905 to provide a place for painting wagons. William Hogarth retired from the business in 1909. James then expanded the business by building the addition to the left, a foundry, in 1912. As was often the case, the livery and blacksmith business adapted to automobile repair, and the addition to the right was constructed in 1923. These buildings continued as automobile sales and service until 1989.


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Horace Clark Apex Building

Horace Clark Apex Building Description:

612-614 Main Street - A fire in 1982 destroyed these two business blocks.

The Apex was one of Main Streets few stone buildings, and featured beautiful stained glass windows. It served as the official government assay office from its construction in 1897 to 1907.

Pam's Purple Door, one of Deadwood's last brothels, operated here until 1980.

The columns on either side of this vacant lot are remnants of the Horace Clark Building, built in 1900. Sing You, a local Chinese businessman, operated the Club Restaurant and the Palmer House Hotel here for many years. A milk pasteurizing plant was a later tenant.


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L.M. Parker Building

L.M. Parker Building Description:

606 Main Street (1894) - This is another of the buildings constructed after the fire in March, 1894. The second story originally featured bay windows, and the storefront was similar to others in the vicinity.

L.M. Parker operated a grocery store here until 1917. Other tenants have included the Ruth Brothers Machine Works and Country Club Beverage and Supply.


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M.B. Wilson Building

M.B. Wilson Building Description:

608-610 Main Street (1902-03) - Fremont Ward, Architect - When this building opened to the public in April of 1903, Henry Maillard's Pickwick Saloon was the first tenant. Maillard advertised that the Pickwick was "without a doubt the neatest, cleanest and most popular resort in the city of Deadwood." It was later occupied as an automobile garage and electrical service. The upstairs housed the Shasta Rooms in the 1930's and 40's. The neon sign on the front of the building was moved from a location further up the street, and is considered to be the oldest neon sign in Deadwood.


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Ruth Brothers Building

Ruth Brothers Building Description:

625 Main Street (c.1925/1944) - The Ruth Brothers ran their machine shop from this building, eventually expanding into the two adjoining buildings. The reverse swastika on the front of the building was a Native American good luck symbol.

A rear addition was constructed in 1944.


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Second I.H. Chase Building

Second I.H. Chase Building Description:

624 Main Street (1898) - J.W. Gibbs, Architect - I.H. Chase moved his closing store to this location from 604 Main Street in 1898. When he moved out in 1903, Frank X. Smith opened a beer hall here, which was reputed to be "a metropolitan resort." It later housed the Eagle Inn. The saloon where Wild Bill Hickok was killed was probably in this general area, but its actual location is unknown.


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Site of the Schwarzwald Building

Site of the Schwarzwald Building Description:

Samuel Schwarzwald was born in Prussia in 1848, and immigrated to New York City with his family in 1857. He worked in Georgia, Missouri and Montana before coming to Deadwood in August of 1876. By 1877 Schwarzwald had constructed a used furniture store near this location.

After the Fire of 1894, Schwarzwald built a new, two-story brick building on the right side of this lot. Business was very successful, and in 1900 he built a second two-story brick building on the left side of this lot, connecting the two buildings on the interior with a twenty-foot wide arched opening. In 1911, Schwarzwald realized that this end of Main Street was no longer part of the retail district. He leased space in the Syndicate Block and moved his store to that location. By 1919, he had returned to his old stand, and remained here until his death in 1927. The furniture store passed into the ownership of Schwarzwald's wife and her children by a prior marriage. They continued operating under the Schwarzwald name.

In 1948, fire once again destroyed the buildings on these lots. A new store was constructed in the most modern of styles, with glass block windows and cement walls. In 1977, the building was sold, and the store moved to 608-10 Main Street. The new owner dealt in Indian artifacts, and remodeled this building in the Southwestern style as an advertisement for his products.


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Off Main Street

Off Main Street Description:

Home of Armour & Co. Branch, Deadwood Auditorium & Park,F.D. Smith Block, and many other landmarks.


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Armour & Co. Branch

Armour & Co. Branch Description:

37 Sherman Street (1912-13) Armour and Company began operations in Deadwood in 1899 at this location. By 1912, business required the construction of this expanded facility, at a cost of $15,000.

Three thousand people attended the opening of this building, which housed company offices and served as a cold storage meat plant. Armour served samples of their products at the grand opening.

The newspaper reported that "there was no limit to the supply and few signs of a limit to the appetites of the guests." The building continued to serve as cold storage throughout most of its life, despite a brief stint as a Chinese restaurant.


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Deadwood Auditorium & Park

Deadwood Auditorium & Park Description:

105 Sherman Street (1912-13) - Charles A. Randall, Architect - For many years, the people of Deadwood attempted to raise the money necessary to acquire a large parcel of land for development as a city park. But flat land was difficult to find. Finally, in 1911, the city agreed to purchase several lots along Sherman Street where a variety of small wooden structures, built as transfer stations for the railroad, had recently been destroyed by fire. Some members of the city council objected to this expenditure, and a special election was held. The purchase passed by a large majority. Part of the parcel was then turned over to the Deadwood Businessman's Club for the construction of an auditorium facility. Money was raised by public subscription, and the auditorium was underway by September of 1912. The cornerstone was laid in a Masonic ceremony on October 30, 1912, and contained a record of the fundraising effort, names of the officers of the club, and local newspapers.

With the exception of cupola that was never built, the building was finished at a total cost of $25,000 in early 1913.


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F.D. Smith Block

F.D. Smith Block Description:

27 Deadwood Street (1896) - This striking building with its horse head sculpture has mystified visitors for years. In fact, F.D. Smith had a feed store here, and horse-drawn delivery wagons could load in the basement and exit over a ramp into the street.

Smith opened his business at this location in 1893 in a one-story brick building. He announced his plans to add a second story in 1896, but ended up with this beautiful three-story building instead, built with stone from Whitewood Quarry. The location of this building adjacent to two railroad passenger stations made it a natural place for the City's Post Office, and the front room was so occupied from 1897 to 1907.

A stairway from the sidewalk led down to Delmonico's Restaurant, later occupied by Seebick Millinery. The public library located on the second floor, surrounded by professional offices. The third floor served as residential apartments for Smith and four other families.

By 1920 Chalk Wagner, pioneer hotel owner, ran the Wagner Cafe at this address. In 1921, Wagner purchased the building and opened it as the Wagner Hotel.

The storefront was remodeled with the addition of black and white glass tiles and glass block in 1937. In more recent years, this building housed an auto parts store.


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Hattenbach Brothers Building

Hattenbach Brothers Building Description:

79 Sherman Street (1895) - Joseph and Aaron Hattenbach came to Deadwood in 1876. Although initially involved in mining, the brothers went into the retail grocery business by 1880.

In that year, they built a store on what is now a part of the parking lot in front of City Hall, just down the street from this building.

Business prospered, and the Hattenbach Brothers required a larger building. They broke ground for this store in November of 1894, and it was completed in June, 1895.

The iron front was fabricated by the Phoenix Ironworks in Omaha, Nebraska. Joseph made a special trip to Chicago to select the furnishings, which included marble top butter and meat tables, and the finest cracker display west of Chicago (according to the local newspapers).

Aaron Hattenbach retired from the partnership, and in March of 1912 Joseph sold the business to L.C. Pugh. Pugh sold to B. Frank Beckel in 1941, who continued the grocery business under the name Evergreen Food.

More recently, the building has housed a laundry and an office supply store.


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Homestake Slime Plant

Homestake Slime Plant Description:

The Homestake Slime Plant was built in 1906, and is built atop the site of an old mine. It is currently being developed into an entertainment complex.


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Martin & Mason-Clark Building

Martin & Mason-Clark Building Description:

Corner of Deadwood and Sherman Streets (1893/1897-98) - Archibald/Hein, Architects - The announcement was made January 20, 1893 that attorneys Martin and Mason would build on their lot at this corner. Ground was broken February 15, 1893. Architect Archibald designed both two- and three-story versions of the building, and the owners chose the two-story design. When completed in August, the local newspapers called it "the handsomest and most modern building in the city," with electric lights, bathrooms, and steam heat. Martin and Mason occupied the three front rooms on the second floor, and the balance was occupied by other professional offices. The main floor was leased by Hornberger's Grocery Store.

In 1896, when F.D. Smith began construction of his three-story building next door, Martin and Mason considered adding a third floor to their building. The following year, Horace Clark hired an architect named Hein to design a new building to be built on the opposite side of Martin and Mason from Smith, on the site of the bakery where the fire of 1879 had started. Hein designed a compatible building using the same red sandstone from Hot Springs, and also designed a third story to span across both buildings.

Work began in September, 1897. The third story was already under construction by October, and the roof was on by December. The third story was designed to be occupied by the Olympic Club, a fraternal and exercise club. They celebrated the opening of their new facility with a ball on February 18, 1898. Their club rooms featured a gymnasium/ballroom, library, card room, billiard room, and bathrooms. Other tenants at that time included C.E. Hawley, musical instruments, the Olympic Bakery, the Joseph Vincent Furniture Store, and professional offices. They Olympic Club was dissolved in 1909, and their lodge rooms were occupied by the International Order of Odd Fellows.

By 1909, John Treber operated his drug store from the corner storefront. The Old Style Saloon, now located on Main Street, started life here as the Ole Style Nightclub in 1933. By the 1990's the storefront had been altered to create larger window area on the main floor, without regard to the structural integrity of the building. In order to save the building from collapse, it was necessary to fill in some of the windows and re-support the foundation.

The division between the two buildings can be seen from Sherman Street, and occurs where the entrance to the stairway is recessed from the front of the building. Martin and Mason's names can be found cast into the lintel above the stairway on the Deadwood Street side of the building.


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The Adams Block

The Adams Block Description:

629 Main Street (1880/1893) - The Adams Brothers Banner Grocery opened on the west side of Main Street in 1877. After the fire of 1879, the brothers purchased this lot and built a one-story brick building which opened in November, 1880. W.E. Adams eventually became one of Deadwood's wealthiest merchants. He built three large store buildings on Sherman Street, and donated the Adams Memorial Museum to the city in 1930. Adams Brothers moved to another location in the mid-1880's and this building housed a succession of saloons. The second story of this building was added in 1893, but the original decorative brick parapet is still visible along Wall Street. The most successful saloon at this location was known simply as The Brick, where men gathered during national elections to hear the results, which arrived by private telegraph wire. This was part of the adjacent Combination Theater after 1901. A motorcycle sales and service shop operated here in the 1920's. Some of the original pressed tin ceiling can still be found in the rear portion of this building.


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Pine St to Lee St

Pine St to Lee St Description:

Home of the Cuthbertson Block, Franklin Garage, Masonic Temple, Phoenix Block, and Waite Block & Annex.


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Cuthbertson Block

Cuthbertson Block Description:

673-75 Main Street (1879/1902-03/c.1980) - Under territorial government, before the incorporation of the City of Deadwood, Lawrence County used a building at this site for its courthouse.

After the fire of 1879, Edward Cuthbertson built a new, two-story brick building here for the county. Although the court system occupied the property, the commissioners rented a separate building on Sherman Street and ultimately forced the court system to relocate.

By 1902 the building had been weakened by floods and neglect, and substantial reconstruction was required by the city. Horace Clark, who purchased the building that year, constructed a new front and an entirely new two-story rear addition.


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Franklin Garage

Franklin Garage Description:

707 Main Street (1933) - Ray Ewing, Architect - This building was constructed by W.E. Adams for the Hills Chevrolet Company. It was later renamed the Franklin Garage.

Architect Ray Ewing also designed the Hudson-Terraplane showroom on Pine Street, and was supervising architect for the Dodge and Plymouth showroom for Black Hills Motors.

Montgomery Ward was a more recent tenant.


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Masonic Temple

Masonic Temple Description:

715 Main Street (1892-1902/1920) - John Gibbs, Architect - Deadwood's Masonic Lodge held its first meeting in a log cabin on Sherman Street shortly after the mining camp was formed. A larger, two-story log building was quickly acquired, also on Sherman Street. In 1880, the Masons moved into the third floor of the Bodega Saloon. By 1890, they were making plans to build their own building. The foundation for this structure was built in 1892-93, but pledged funds came in slowly and work was stalled for many years.

When completed ten years later, it had traditional glass storefronts with commercial tenants. It also served as the Federal Courthouse before the government built its own building in 1904-07.

A 1920 remodeling reduced the size of the storefront windows and installed stained glass. The Temple is otherwise in near original condition, with tin ceilings, an elevator cage, and a third-floor theater.


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Phoenix Block

Phoenix Block Description:

677 Main Street (1879/1990) -Patrick Power, Architect - Judge Daniel McLaughlin, Deadwood's first mayor, built this building in the ashes of the fire of 1879, hence the same name.

Three stories tall, it was designed by the same Chicago architect who designed the building where the Bodega Saloon is now located. The front was very plain until 1891 when an elaborate cornice was installed.

A large meeting room on the third floor was the scene of the first meeting of Deadwood's City Council in 1881. The room was later partitioned into apartments, and the entire third floor was finally removed in the 1960's.

A three-story outhouse, truly a Deadwood landmark, was removed in 1940.

The main floor of the Phoenix Block has served a variety of commercial uses, including Will Lowe's Bee Hive Store and, until recently, the New York Store. The storefront was remodeled several times. All that remains of the original building is the brick on the sides of the second story and the stone window trim on the second story. The third story was reconstructed in 1991.


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Waite Block & Annex

Waite Block & Annex Description:

681 Main Street (1899-1900) - O.C. Jewett, Architect - This massive block was built from 1899 to 1900, after its smaller rear addition (see Waite Block Annex).

The tenant on the first floor was the John C. Haines department store, advertised as "The Big Store". Offices and apartments occupied the balance of the second and third stories. The upper floors featured an ornate parlor with a tiled fireplace, portions of which remain intact. Haines was replaced by Montgomery Ward in 1940.

Note the blind or false windows on the Deadwood Street side, inserted as part of the original construction to avoid the monotony of a solid brick wall.

A recessed entry between this building and the Waite Annex provided access to a separate storefront occupied in 1901 by the Great Eastern Coffee & Tea Co.


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Shine St to Lee St

Shine St to Lee St Description:

This block covers the building between Shine Street and Lee Street west of Main Street. Additionally it covers the Franklin Hotel, to the south of Shine Street and the United Methodist Church west of the Black Hills Bank on the corner of Shine and Williams Street.


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Black Hills Bank

Black Hills Bank Description:

696 Main Street (1903-04) - W.W. Beach, Architect - Construction began in August, while the building was still being designed. The sandstone used in the walls came from the Burke Quarry in Hot Springs, as did the stone for the Franklin Hotel. The granite columns arrived from St. Cloud, Minnesota in June of 1904. The bank opened on October 31, 1904 to the praises of the local newspaper, which called it "a model of beauty. having every metropolitan advantage." But the economy of the 1920's took its toll, the Bank closed its doors. The banking hall was disassembled and converted into offices. Mahogany columns were sawed off, mosaic floors were torn out, ceiling stencils painted over. First Western Bank restored the building to its original use in 1990, using original tile and stencil patterns and colors. The vault door, removed over fifty years before, was found in a building in nearby Whitewood and reinstalled. The second floor was originally design to house offices. Tenants included Dr. Frank S. Howe, who served as Deadwood's Mayor from 1924 to 1934. A meeting room on the third floor served both the Eagles and Elks Lodges from 1904 to 1907. The basement was a popular barber shop for many years.


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Butler Building

Butler Building Description:

678 Main Street (c. 1935) - A two-story wooden frame building occupied by Gandolpho Fruit and Confectionery Store stood at this site for many years. The present brick storefront dates from c. 1935 and was occupied by Butler's Jewelry Store.


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Elk's Building

Elk's Building Description:

692 Main Street (1905-06/1933) - Fremont Ward, Architect - The Wentworth Hotel, one of Deadwood's largest wood-frame commercial buildings, occupied this site well before the turn of the century. After construction of the Franklin Hotel, the Black Hills Trust and Savings Bank, and the Waite Block, this huge wooden building was considered a fire hazard and an eyesore. The owners and operators of the local gaslight company purchased the property and razed the Wentworth in late 1903. They began construction of this building in September of 1905 with the intention that the tenant would be a department store. The front windows were the largest ever installed in the Black Hills; 117 square feet in size. But instead of a department store, the building was leased to the Dakota Biscuit Company.


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Franklin Hotel

Franklin Hotel Description:

700 Main Street (1902-03/1929) - Charles A. Randall and O.C. Jewett, Architects - The grand opening on June 4, 1903 was well attended, and was followed by a banquet for 250 guests. Services available in the hotel included a cigar store and newsstand, barber shop, buffet, restaurant, and masseuse. Telephones were available in every room. A spring in the basement served a fountain in the lobby. But a crooked light pole in the corner of the intersection of Main and Shine Streets made the building appear to lean to one side. The pole was immediately removed. The hotel continued to be popular long after Deadwood began its economic decline. John L. Sullivan, Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft, John Wayne, Buffalo Bill, and Babe Ruth are just a sample from the guest list. A new rear addition was constructed in 1929. As with many downtown hotels, most of the rooms in the Franklin were eventually converted into residential apartments. But with the increase of tourism from gaming, one of South Dakota's longest continuously - operated lodging facilities is once again making a name for itself. The lobby interior has changed very little since 1903, with its mosaic tile floor, massive fireplace and ornate time ceiling.


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Gold Dust

Gold Dust Description:

688 Main Street (1879) - Jacob Wertheimer, a local retailer, built the Merchants Hotel on this site in 1879. A variety of businesses occupied the main floor including the Black Hills and Sidney Stage Company. The hotel's bar fixtures, purchased in Chicago at a cost of $750, were called "one of the handsomest sets of bar fixtures to be seen in this or any country." Wertheimer sold the Hotel in about 1890 to John G. Keith who changed the name to the Keystone Hotel. A fire in 1909 caused substantial damage to the building, but it was repaired. It again narrowly avoided destruction when fire consumed the buildings adjacent to the Elk's Building in 1944. Finally, in December of 1951, the Keystone and several surrounding buildings burned to the ground.


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Goldberg's Grocery Store

Goldberg's Grocery Store Description:

672 Main Street (1879/1898) - P.A. Gushurst built a store at this location in 1876 and sold it to Jacob Goldberg later that year. Goldberg and his partner, N.C. Mattheissen, operated the Big Horn Store here until Mattheissen withdrew from the business in 1882. This building was built after the fire of 1879, and continued in operation as a grocery store until 1990. A rear addition designed by architect Fremont P. Ward was constructed in 1898. The interior retains many of the features of the grocery store, including the manager's loft office and the meat locker.


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Herrmann Treber Building

Herrmann Treber Building Description:

670 Main (1879/1883) - The wholesale liquor business was a profitable one in early Deadwood. John Treber came here in 1877 from Germany by way of Kansas and Missouri, and entered into that business. He built this building after the fire of 1879 and added a rear addition in 1883. His partnership with Herrmann dissolved in 1884. Treber was the subject of an international incident in 1891 when he returned to Germany to visit relatives and was arrested for his failure to perform mandatory military service. After five months in prison he was released through the assistance of Adolph Busch, the famous St. Louis brewer. Treber was active in local and state politics and built several other buildings in Deadwood. The Brown Drug Store occupied this building in the early 1920's. This building still features a turn of the century soda fountain, one of the oldest operating fountains in America.


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John H. Burns Block

John H. Burns Block Description:

674 Main Street (1879/1883/1937) - The present structure is a two-story brick building constructed after the fire of 1879. A rear addition was built in 1883. In that same year, this was one of the first Deadwood commercial blocks to boast an electric light. From 1908 until 1910, this was the Fairyland Theater, one of Deadwood's first "moving picture" houses. Early shows included "Chinese Slave Smugglers," "Dogs Chasing Robbers," and "When Women Vote." It was then remodeled by John Treber for use as a drug store. A jewelry store has been the tenant for more than fifty years. The storefront was remodeled in 1937. Wood siding, from a more recent remodeling, conceals the brick second story.


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Merchant's Hotel Site

Merchant's Hotel Site Description:

Built in 1879 by Jacob Wertheimer, the Merchant's Hotel had 45 well-furninshed rooms, billiard parlours, and 'sample rooms'. These sample rooms were where commercial boarders and travelers could display their goods for examination, and barrooms where travelers could sample the goods on offer at the hotel.


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Telephone Company Building

Telephone Company Building Description:

668 Main Street (1880/1938) - The Merchant's National Bank was constructed on this site in 1880. The local telephone exchange took an upstairs office in 1882. The bank moved out, and the main floor served as retail-space for many years, including Fishel's Bazaar, Arnold Brothers Grocery, Kirk Phillips' Drug Store, and The Modern clothing store. The Hub was one such retail establishment, which occupied the building from 1910 until 1938. In that year, the telephone company expanded its offices and occupied the entire building. The front was also remodeled to its current appearance in 1938.


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United Methodist Church

United Methodist Church Description:

The United Methodist Church on the corner of Shine and Williams Street was constructed in 1885. It is considered a contributing structure, located within the National Landmark District of Deadwood. The United Methodist Church is rich in history and is significant, since it was built during Deadwoods' boom time, which made it the first major urban center in western South Dakota. Since the church's construction in 1885 it has been altered and modified. In 1899 an addition was put on to the south, another significant change to the exterior of the building in 1953 when a gunite and permistone exterior was added to the surface, this was due to failing brick. Since that time interior remodels were done in approximately 1958 and 1974.


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References:

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  1. "Scanning Deadwood: Preserving Cultural Heritage Sites is an Important Challenge," by Cyn Rene Whitfield, The American Surveyor, Nov. 2007

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Credits:

more     - Mike Frecks